IMR-90 - CCL-186 | ATCC (2023)


The IMR-90 cell line is made up of fibroblasts isolated from normal lung tissue derived from a 16-week-old female. IMR-90 cells are reported to be capable of attaining 58 population doublings before the onset of senescence. The cell line may be used as an alternate to WI-38 and other human lung cell strains, considering division potential and viral susceptibilities.

Product category

Human cells


Homo sapiens, human

Cell type



3D cell culture

Product format
Storage conditions

Vapor phase of liquid nitrogen

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(Video) Altogen Biosystems In Vitro IMR 90 Transfection Tutorial

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IMR-90 - CCL-186 | ATCC (1)

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ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

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Required Products

These products are vital for the proper use of this item and have been confirmed as effective in supporting functionality. If you use alternative products, the quality and effectiveness of the item may be affected.

Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM)


(Video) Altogen Biosystems IMR-90 Transfection Reagent

Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS)


Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)


Detailed product information

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Specific applications

This cell line is a suitable transfection host.


Growth properties

The human diploid fibroblast strain IMR-90 was derived by W.W. Nichols and associates from the lungs of a 16-week female fetus.

16 weeks gestation
normal human female; diploid; stable. Note: Cytogenetic information is based on initial seed stock at ATCC. Cytogenetic instability has been reported in the literature for some cell lines.
Virus susceptibility

Human poliovirus 1

Human poliovirus 2


Herpes simplex virus 1

Herpes simplex virus 2

Human poliovirus 3

Vaccinia virus

Human herpesvirus 5

Vesicular stomatitis virus




The division potential, viral susceptibilities and other properties have been thoroughly studied such that the line may be considered as an alternate for WI-38 and other standard human lung cell strains.

The cells have been reported to be capable of attaining 58 population doublings before the onset of senescence.

Technical information

ATCC Technical Services does not have technical information on patent deposits that are not produced or characterized by ATCC. Additional information can be found in the corresponding patent available from the patent holder or with the U.S. and/or international patent office.

Handling information

Unpacking and storage instructions
  1. Check all containers for leakage or breakage.
  2. Remove the frozen cells from the dry ice packaging and immediately place the cells at a temperature below ­-130°C, preferably in liquid nitrogen vapor, until ready for use.
Complete medium
The base medium for this cell line is ATCC-formulated Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, Catalog No. 30-2003. To make the complete growth medium, add the following components to the base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%.


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95% Air, 5% CO2

Handling procedure

To insure the highest level of viability, thaw the vial and initiate the culture as soon as possible upon receipt. If upon arrival, continued storage of the frozen culture is necessary, it should be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor phase and not at -70°C. Storage at -70°C will result in loss of viability.

  1. Thaw the vial by gentle agitation in a 37°C water bath. To reduce the possibility of contamination, keep the O-ring and cap out of the water. Thawing should be rapid (approximately 2 minutes).
  2. Remove the vial from the water bath as soon as the contents are thawed, and decontaminate by dipping in or spraying with 70% ethanol. All of the operations from this point on should be carried out under strict aseptic conditions.
  3. It is recommended that the cryoprotective agent be removed immediately. Centrifuge the cell suspension at approximately 125 x g for 5 to 10 minutes. Discard the supernatant and resuspend the cell pellet in an appropriate amount of fresh growth medium.
  4. Transfer the cells to an appropriate size vessel. It is important to avoid excessive alkalinity of the medium during recovery of the cells. It is suggested that, prior to the addition of the vial contents, the culture vessel containing the growth medium be placed into the incubator for at least 15 minutes to allow the medium to reach its normal pH (7.0 to 7.6).
  5. Incubate the culture at 37°C in a suitable incubator. A 5% CO2 in air atmosphere is recommended if using the medium described on this product sheet.
Subculturing procedure

Volumes used in this protocol are for 75 cm2 flask; proportionally reduce or increase amount of dissociation medium for culture vessels of other sizes.CorningT-75 flasks (catalog #430641) are recommended for subculturing this product.

  1. Remove and discard culture medium.
  2. Briefly rinse the cell layer with 0.25% (w/v) Trypsin- 0.53 mM EDTA solution to remove all traces of serum that contains trypsin inhibitor.
  3. Add 2.0 to 3.0 mL of Trypsin-EDTA solution to flask and observe cells under an inverted microscope until cell layer is dispersed (usually within 5 to 15 minutes).
    Note: To avoid clumping do not agitate the cells by hitting or shaking the flask while waiting for the cells to detach. Cells that are difficult to detach may be placed at 37°C to facilitate dispersal.
  4. Add 6.0 to 8.0 mL of complete growth medium and aspirate cells by gently pipetting.
  5. Add appropriate aliquots of the cell suspension to new culture vessels.
  6. Incubate cultures at 37°C.

Subcultivation Ratio: A subcultivation ratio of 1:2 to 1:8 is recommended

Medium Renewal: Every 3 to 4 days

Reagents for cryopreservation
Complete growth medium supplemented with 5% (v/v) DMSO (ATCC 4-X)

Quality control specifications

Mycoplasma contamination
Not detected
STR profiling

Amelogenin: X

CSF1PO: 11,13

D13S317: 11,13

D16S539: 10,13

D5S818: 12,13

D7S820: 9,12

THO1: 8,9.3

TPOX: 8,9

vWA: 16,19


Deposited as
Homo sapiens
WW Nichols

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid. Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at


This material is cited in a US and/or international patent and may not be used to infringe the claims. Depending on the wishes of the Depositor, ATCC may be required to inform the Depositor of the party to which the material was furnished.

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This material may require an export certificate of origin acquired by either ATCC or a forwarding agent; you do not need to take any action for this export certificate of origin. Additional fees may apply as a result of acquiring this export certificate of origin; these fees will be applied after your order is confirmed and our Customer Care team reaches out about this item. We cannot ship this item until we acquire this export certificate of origin. The export certificate of origin will be included in the shipment to meet export requirements. If you need assistance with your order, please contact our Customer Care team or your applicable distributor.



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Frequently Asked Questions

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Curated Citations

Nichols WW, et al. Characterization of a new human diploid cell strain, IMR-90. Science 196: 60-63, 1977. PubMed: 841339

Dolganov GM, et al. Human Rad50 is physically associated with human Mre11: identification of a conserved multiprotein complex implicated in recombinational DNA repair. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 4832-4841, 1996. PubMed: 8756642

Ostlund RE Jr., et al. A sterospecific myo-inositol/D-chiro-inositol transporter in HepG2 liver cells. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 10073-10078, 1996. PubMed: 8626564

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What is the use of IMR 90 cell line? ›

IMR-90 cells are reported to be capable of attaining 58 population doublings before the onset of senescence. The cell line may be used as an alternate to WI-38 and other human lung cell strains, considering division potential and viral susceptibilities.

What is the doubling time of IMR 90? ›

Human primary fibroblasts (IMR90, ATCC #CCL-186) • Doubling time: +/- 30-40hrs (at 3% O2) • Medium: DMEM, high glucose, + glutamine, w/o pyruvate, Pen/Strep, 10% FBS (change media every three days). All primary human fibroblasts lose telomeric DNA with every doubling, and so will eventually senesce.

What is the human lung fibroblast cell line atcc? ›

Primary Lung Fibroblast, Normal, Human (HLF) is a cell line that's an ideal culture model for potential diagnostic methods for the early detection of lung cancer cells, reconstruction studies, and advancement of cancer research.

What cell line obtained from human foetal lung fibroblast? ›

Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line) The MRC-5 cell line is commonly utilized in vaccine development, as a transfection host in virology research, and for in vitro cytotoxicity testing.

What is the benefit of an immortal cell line? ›

Immortal cell lines are often used in research in place of primary cells. They offer several advantages, such as they are cost effective, easy to use, provide an unlimited supply of material and bypass ethical concerns associated with the use of animal and human tissue.

What is the most used cell line? ›

HeLa cells are the world's most commonly used human cell lines, and have served as a standard for understanding many fundamental biological processes.

What is normal cell doubling time? ›

The growth rate equals 0.01356 cells per hour.

How much time is required for cell doubling? ›

Divide the elapsed time in hours by the number of generations that passed during that time. For example, two hours divided by four generations equals 0.5 hours per generation. Multiply the result by 60 to convert to minutes per generation. In the example, the doubling time is 0.5 * 60, or 30 minutes.

How do you find exact doubling time? ›

The formula for doubling time is: Doubling time = ln(2) / (growth rate), where “ln” represents the natural logarithm and the growth rate is expressed as a decimal or percentage.

Which virus is human fibroblast cell line used for? ›

These findings indicate that fibroblast cell lines immortalized with transforming genes of human papillomavirus retain complete permissiveness to HCMV infection and support plaque formation. The IF cell line will be useful for future genetic analysis of HCMV.

What is normal human fibroblast cell line? ›

Primary Dermal Fibroblast; Normal, Human, Adult (HDFa) is a skin cell line with research applications in responding to pathogens, skin aging, wound healing, gene delivery, and skin diseases, including scleroderma.

How long can a cell cycle last in a human fibroblast cell? ›

For primary human fibroblasts, the cell cycle lasts between 16 and 28 hours with a mean of 20 hours.

Where do fibroblast cells come from? ›

Fibroblasts are originally derived from primitive mesenchyme and therefore display the filament protein vimentin, which acts as a marker of mesodermal origin. In some cases, epithelial cells may also produce fibroblasts, a process which is referred to as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT).

What is the lung fibroblast cell marker? ›

We identified CD248 and ITGA8 as cell surface markers for human lung fibroblast subtypes. Given their localization, two major subtypes, CD248highITGA8low human fibroblast-like cells and CD248lowITGA8high human fibroblast-like cells, appear to be associated with collagen fibers and elastic fibers, respectively.

Where are lung fibroblasts located? ›

In the lung, fibroblasts reside enmeshed in ECM within the interstitial space until they are required for wound repair.

What are the disadvantages of immortal cell lines? ›

The major disadvantage to using immortalized cells is that these cells cannot be considered normal, in that they divide indefinitely and sometimes express unique gene patterns not found in any cell type in vivo. Therefore, they might not have the relevant attributes or functions of normal cells.

Can cell lines grow indefinitely? ›

Although many animal cells stop dividing after a finite number of cell divisions, cells that have been immortalized through spontaneous mutations or genetic manipulation can be maintained indefinitely in cell lines.

What are the famous immortal cell lines? ›

Among the important scientific discoveries of the last century was the first immortal human cell line known as “HeLa” — a remarkably durable and prolific line of cells obtained during the treatment of Henrietta's cancer by Johns Hopkins researcher Dr. George Gey in 1951.

What is the oldest human cell line? ›

The HeLa cell line is the oldest, most widely distributed, permanent human cell line.

What are high five cell lines? ›

High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4) is an insect cell line that originated from the ovarian cells of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. It was developed by the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research.

What has the oldest cell line? ›

HeLa (/ˈhiːlɑː/; also Hela or hela) is an immortalized cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line.

What is the rule of 70 for doubling time? ›

The rule of 70 is used to determine the number of years it takes for a variable to double by dividing the number 70 by the variable's growth rate. The rule of 70 is generally used to determine how long it would take for an investment to double given the annual rate of return.

How many hours does 2 cells become 4 cells? ›

For the first 12 hours after conception, the fertilized egg remains a single cell. After 30 hours or so, it divides from one cell into two. Some 15 hours later, the two cells divide to become four.

Why is 70 used for doubling time? ›

The reason why the rule of 70 is popular in finance is because it offers a simple way to manage complicated exponential growth. It breaks down growth formulas into a simple equation using the number 70 alongside the rate of return.

What is the doubling time of a c6 cell line? ›

Doubling time: ~24 hours (CLS=500142); ~25-30 hours (DSMZ=ACC-550).

What is the rule of 72 double doubling time? ›

What is the Rule of 72? The Rule of 72 is a calculation that estimates the number of years it takes to double your money at a specified rate of return. If, for example, your account earns 4 percent, divide 72 by 4 to get the number of years it will take for your money to double. In this case, 18 years.

Why is cell doubling time important? ›

The doubling time is the time it takes your cells to double in number. It is useful to know the doubling time of your cells so that you can plate the appropriate number for transduction with a lentiviral library or construct.

What is the formula for doubling numbers? ›

Let's discuss the formula for doubling numbers. We can double any number in two ways. 1) Multiply the number by 2. 2) Add the number to itself.

Does doubling time change? ›

The doubling time of a population exhibiting exponential growth is the time required for a population to double. Implicit in this definition is the fact that, no matter when you start measuring, the population will always take the same amount of time to double.

How does doubling time work? ›

The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time.

What cell lines for virus growth? ›

Diploid cell lines

The cells retain their diploid character, hence the name 'diploid cell line'. A cell line of this kind is susceptible to a broad spectrum of different kinds of viruses. Diploid cells are used for the cultivation of viruses from patients and also for the production of some live virus vaccines.

What cell line is for virus production? ›

Gibco Viral Production Cells are a derivative of the HEK 293F cell line and are a core component of the LV-MAX Lentiviral Production System. Viral Production Cells have been adapted to a special chemically-defined, serum-free and protein-free LV-MAX Production Medium.

Which cell line is used for viruses? ›

For accurate identification of viruses, different types of cell lines should be prepared to inoculate the suspected sample. The most important cell lines widely used for viral diagnosis are primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (RhMK), primary rabbit kidney cells, MRC-5, human foreskin fibroblasts, HEp-2, and A549.

Can fibroblasts be cancerous? ›

Cancer-associated fibroblasts are important players of the tumour microenvironment. They influence numerous processes during tumour development and progression, including the response of cancer cells to treatment. As a consequence, this cell type has emerged has a prominent target in anti-cancer therapy.

How big is a human fibroblast? ›

With the exception of the smallest group of fibroblasts (fractions 25–30), the diameter of which approached that of bare nuclei (7.3 ± 0.6-μm nuclear diameter vs. 8.44 ± 2.5-μm cell diameter), the median FALS value correlated well with average cell volume (r = 0.94).

What does fibroblast do in chronic inflammation? ›

Besides their role as inflammatory cells, the fibroblastic stromal cells may play a critical role in enabling chronic inflammation in tissues, where their production of chemokines and growth factors may be critical to perpetuating the recruitment, retention, and survival of leukocytes.

What happens to fibroblasts as we age? ›

During the aging process, the proliferative and metabolic activity of fibroblasts decreases and their functions are impaired, leading to reduction of the synthesis of structural substances such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin.

How many times can a human cell divide before it dies? ›

The Hayflick Limit is a concept that helps to explain the mechanisms behind cellular aging. The concept states that a normal human cell can only replicate and divide forty to sixty times before it cannot divide anymore, and will break down by programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Can fibroblasts regenerate? ›

Fibroblasts are classically associated to fibrosis and tissue repair, and seldom to regeneration. However, accumulating evidence supports a pro-regenerative role of fibroblasts in different organs.

Why is DMSO used for cells? ›

As a cryoprotective agent, DMSO is added to cell freezing medium to prevent the formation of ice crystals during the freezing process, otherwise cells would be destroyed and dead. It is commonly used in cell banking. DMSO has a low toxicity to cells.

Why is MCF 7 cell line used? ›

MCF7 are primarily used as an in vitro model to study breast cancer biology. Due to the number of variants available, it has applications in development of chemotherapeutic drugs and understanding drug resistance. Cells may carry B or C type retrovirus and are considered to represent a category 2 pathogen.

What is monkey kidney cell line used for? ›

African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells provide an alternative host cell system for influenza A and B viruses.

Which cell lines are used for vaccine production? ›

To produce viral vaccines, candidate vaccine viruses are grown in mammalian, avian or insect tissue culture of cells with a finite lifespan. These cells are typically Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, but others are also used including monkey cell lines pMK and Vero and human cell lines HEK 293, MRC 5, Per.

Does DMSO increase cell growth? ›

1A, DMSO showed a dose dependent effect on cell proliferation; cells treated with 1.5% DMSO showed an approximately 10% reduction in cell growth.

How long can cells sit in DMSO? ›

Research has reported that adding 10% Ficoll 70 to the 10% DMSO containing cryoprotectant makes cells frozen at -80°C for one year without loss of viability, compared with liquid nitrogen storage.

How does DMSO damage cells? ›

In addition to increased ROS production, decreased cell viability and mitochondrial dysfunction may impair glutamate transporter synthesis by astrocytes. High concentration of DMSO has been shown to degrade membrane structure and disturb secondary protein structures within membrane proteins [26], [27].

What are the three types of cell lines? ›

The Cell Line

Cells cultured in the lab can be classified into three different types: primary cells, transformed cells, and self-renewing cells.

Why do cell lines need co2? ›

CO2 is not a metabolic requirement for cell cultures, its purpose is to dissolve into cell culture medium where a small proportion of it reacts with water to form carbonic acid which in turn interacts with its conjugate base (the dissolved bicarbonate ions in the medium) to control a stable physiological pH through the ...

What is the difference between MCF-7 and MCF 10A? ›

MCF-7 is a breast cancer cell line with overexpression of estrogen receptor, while MCF 10A is a non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line.

Why use 3T3 L1 cells? ›

The 3T3-L1 murine preadipocyte cell line is a commonly used tool for analysis of the subcellular pathways involved in preadipocytic cell differentiation (a process also commonly known as adipogenesis). The major characteristic of adipogenesis is the intracellular accumulation of membrane-bound lipid droplets.

Why use A549 cell line? ›

The A549 cells have been used to model the alveolar Type II pulmonary epithelium. Studies have shown that this can be particularly useful in research for studying the metabolic processing of lung tissue and for identifying mechanisms of drug delivery to the tissue.

What is SV40 cell line? ›

SV40 MES 13 is a mesangial cell line that was isolated in from the glomerulus of a 7-to-10-week-old mouse. This cell line was deposited by LJ Striker.

What cell line was used for the polio vaccine? ›

The Rhesus monkey cell was the initial cell-of-choice to measure the quantity of antibody developed in response to the poliovirus infection.

Is the COVID mRNA vaccine on cells? ›

The mRNA is broken down quickly by the body. It never enters the nucleus, and cannot affect or combine with our DNA in any way to change our genetic code. Instead, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines teach the cell how to make a protein that triggers an immune response specific to COVID-19.

What cell line is used for flu vaccine? ›

The cell-based vaccine manufacturing process uses mammalian cells (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney, or MDCK cells) to grow flu viruses instead of fertilized hen's eggs.


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